KIA Sportazh - Kia Sportage
Controls and operation receptions
Current leaving and service
The engine
Systems of cooling, heating, ventilation and air conditioning
Power supply systems, managements of the engine/decrease of toxicity of the fulfilled gases and release of the fulfilled gases
   Security measures and the general rules accepted at service of components of fuel paths of internal combustion engines
   The power supply system of petrol engines
   The power supply system of diesel engines
   Control systems of the engine and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases
      The general information
      ЕСМ - check of serviceability of a condition and replacement
      System of onboard self-diagnostics (OBD) - the general information
      System of self-diagnostics of diesel models
      Application of an oscillograph for supervision of performance data of a control system
      Check of serviceability of functioning of components of control systems by the engine/decrease of toxicity of the fulfilled gases
   System of release of the fulfilled gases
Systems of an electric equipment of the engine
Five-step manual box of a gear change
Automatic transmission
Transmissionnaja line
Brake system
Suspension bracket and steering
Body
Onboard electric equipment
Control кузовные the sizes
Schemes of electric connections




Kia Sportage>> Power supply systems, managements of the engine/decrease of toxicity of the fulfilled gases and release of the fulfilled gases>> Control systems of the engine and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases

Control systems of the engine and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases

The general information

Petrol models

The general data

For the purpose of decrease in level of issue in atmosphere of the toxic components getting to structure of fulfilled gases of the engine as a result of evaporation and incompleteness of combustion of fuel, and also for maintenance of efficiency of return of the engine and decrease in the expense of fuel, modern cars are equipped equipped by variety of special systems which can be united under the general name of a control system of the engine and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases.

The scheme of functioning of a control system of the engine on petrol models (on an example of the models equipped forward каталитическим with the converter)

1 — Э/м the valve of a purge of an adsorber
2 — the Coal adsorber
3 — TO ECM
4 — the throttle Case
5 — the Regulator of pressure of fuel
6 — the Fuel highway
7 — Fuel injectors
8 — Valve PCV
9 — ignition Coils
10 — Gauge CMP
11 — the Dokatalitichesky warmed up ljambda-probe
12 — the Control valve
13 — the Fuel filter
14 — the Separator of fuel evaporations
15 — the Air cleaner

16 — the Air route
17 — Gauge MAF
18 — Valve IAC
19 — TPS
20 — Gauge ECT
21 — the detonation Gauge (KS)
22 — Gauge CKP
23 — WU-TWC
24 — the Postkatalitichesky warmed up ljambda-probe
25 — the Fuel pump
26 — Toplivozabornik
27 — TWC
28 — the Postkatalitichesky warmed up ljambda-probe
29 — the Gauge of accelerations of the chassis (CAS)

The complete set of systems depends on mark, model, year of release and region, on whose market the car is delivered. The information on type and structure of systems is resulted on information label VECI fixed under a cowl.

The structure of information label VECI includes also the scheme of a lining of vacuum hoses (petrol models)

The scheme of an arrangement of components of control systems of the engine/decrease of toxicity of the fulfilled gases on petrol models with two каталитическими converters

1 — the Gauge of accelerations of the chassis (CAS)
2 — Э/м the valve of a purge of adsorber EVAP
3 — the Gauge of position throttle заслонок (TPS)
4 — the E/motor of system of stabilisation of turns of idling (IAC)
5 — the Gauge of position of a camshaft (CMP)
6 — the Gauge of position of a cranked shaft (CKP)
7 — the Gauge of measurement of weight of air (MAF)
8 — Diagnostic socket DLC
9 — the Gauge of temperature of soaked up air (IAT)
10 — the detonation Gauge (KS)
11 — the Gauge of temperature of a cooling liquid of the engine (ECT)

12 — the Fuel highway with injectors
13 — the Coal adsorber
14 — the Main assembly block of safety locks/relays
15 — the Dokatalitichesky ljambda-probe
16 — Forward three-functional каталитический the converter (TWC)
17 — the Postkatalitichesky ljambda-probe
18 — Back TWC
19 — the Module of management АТ (TCM), - only models with АТ
20 — the engine management Module (ECM)
21 — the Control lamp of refusals (MIL/Проверьте the engine)
22 — Diagnostic socket DLC of system OBD II

The system of consecutive injection of fuel applied on considered models (SFI) gets under classification multidot, with a dosage on the duration of an operating impulse defined on the basis of the information, delivered термоанемометрическим the gauge of weight of air (MAF). Systems of giving of air and fuel function together with the control system of the engine/decrease of toxicity of the fulfilled gases including in the structure set of information gauges, and the actuation mechanisms continuously exchanging the data with the electronic module of management (ECM), co-ordinating engine work. Analyzing the information delivered by gauges, ECM calculates optimum for a present situation of value of a corner of an advancing of ignition and duration of an operating impulse of opening of injectors. On the models considered in the present Management equipped with engine DOHC efficiency of dispersion of injected fuel raises at the expense of pumping of air submitted to injectors on specially organised tap from the inlet pipeline. Мелкодисперсность dispersions not only are raised by efficiency of combustion of a gas mixture, but also allows to lower level of the maintenance of toxic components in combustion products.

The base structure of an air-fuel mix is formed by the module of management on the basis of the data arriving from gauge MAF on which ECM defines quantity of air soaked up in the engine. More exact dosage is carried out taking into account the information, on temperature of a cooling liquid (gauge ECT), speeds of movement of the car (VSS), the oxygen maintenance in the fulfilled gases (ljambda-probe) and the moments of an exit of the piston of the first cylinder in position ВМТ of the end of a step of compression (the gauge of position of a camshaft - CMP).

Continuously analyzing the information arriving from gauges, ECM it is capable to react adequately to the smallest changes of operating conditions of the engine, in due time making corresponding updatings of the moments and duration of injection of fuel in combustion chambers, providing with that maintenance of an optimum parity of such working parametres of the engine, as efficiency of its return and toxicity of an exhaust.

The main component thrown out by the engine in atmosphere of the fulfilled gases is nitrogen (N2), however at an exhaust of any internal combustion engine inevitably there are also монооксид carbon (WITH), carbonic gas (СО2), water steams (Н2О), oxygen (О2), nitrogen oxides (NOх), hydrogen (Н2), and also not burnt down hydrocarbons (NANOSECOND). Three of listed above components, namely WITH, NOх and NANOSECOND, are among the substances actively polluting environment, and in atmosphere subsystems of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases which number concern urged to supervise their issue:

  • System of catching of fuel evaporations (EVAP);
  • System of operated ventilation картера (PCV);
  • The Katalitichesky converter ();
  • The conductor of a jellied mouth of a fuel tank (under a refuelling pistol of columns of distribution неэтилированного gasoline);
  • System of onboard self-diagnostics (OBD).

In the sections resulted more low the general descriptions of principles of functioning of each of systems are given, and also procedures of diagnostic checks and regenerative repair (if that is obviously possible) the separate components which performance lies within qualification of the average mechanic-fan are stated

Before to come to conclusion about refusal any of subsystems of decrease in toxicity, attentively check up serviceability of functioning of power supply systems and ignition (the Part the Power supply system of petrol engines of the present chapter and the Head of System of an electric equipment of the engine see). Diagnostics of systems of decrease in toxicity some of knots demands use of the special, difficult equipment in application and certain qualification of the executor that is why, it will be reasonable to charge its performance to experts of car-care centre. Told above does not mean that service and repair of components of systems of decrease in toxicity in practice are represented exigeant. It is necessary to remember that one of the most widespread reasons of the majority of refusals is elementary infringement of quality of connections of vacuum or electric lines that is why, first of all always it is necessary to check a condition corresponding electric and штуцерных sockets. The owner of the car can make independently and easily enough variety of checks, and also, execute in house conditions set of procedures of routine maintenance of the majority of components of considered subsystems, using thus a usual set of the adjusting and metalwork tool.

Do not forget about additional federal guarantee certificates under which components of systems of decrease in toxicity and engine management get, - before to start performance of any procedures on repair of knots and details of the given systems, consult about conditions of observance of these obligations in representation branch of company KIA.

Try to observe all safety measures stipulated in below-mentioned sections at performance of service of electronic components of considered systems. It is necessary to notice that the illustrative material can correspond not always in accuracy to real placing of components on the car. Such discrepancies are connected with continuously occurring process of updating within the limits of a typical design of each model.

The management module (ECM)

ECM represents the electronic module on the basis of the microprocessor which on the basis of the analysis of signals arriving from various information gauges exercises administration of functioning of systems of injection, ignitions and decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases.

Into number carried out ECM problems enter:

  • Fuel management in parametres of injection;
  • In ignition management in parametres;
  • Management of functioning of system of stabilisation of turns of idling (IAC);
  • Management of system EVAP functioning;
  • Management of functioning of the fuel pump;
  • Self-diagnostics;
  • Activation of emergency parametres of the failed subsystems.

When ECM develops target signals of the fixed level, without the signals arriving from a ljambda-probe (ов), say that the control system functions in a mode of "an open contour», i.e., without a feedback. If the module starts to process given out by the oxygen gauge (ами) the information the mode becomes "closed" that allows ECM to correct parametres of injection and ignition taking into account current operational characteristics of the engine (turns, loading, temperature, and so forth).

In memory of the module emergency values (values by default) the basic working parametres of all subsystems of management are put. The given parametres are activated in case of revealing of refusal of a corresponding subsystem, providing adequacy of functioning of the engine (with inevitable loss of efficiency of return).

Refusal of any subject to monitoring from outside the block of self-diagnostics of a component is fixed in memory of the module in the form of a corresponding code (DTC), which reading can be made by means of the special scanner (the Section System of onboard self-diagnostics (OBD) - the general information) see.

Giving of fuel and configuration of an air-fuel mix

The general information

The Section the Power supply system of petrol engines see.

Duration of injection

During engine warming up at start duration of opening of injectors is defined ECM according to change of temperature of a cooling liquid. After the engine will get warm to normal working temperature, the following scheme of definition of duration of injection joins: «Base value х Adjustment parametres + the Compensatory variable». Thus base value of duration of opening of an injector is defined by two major factors: quantity of air submitted to the engine (on gauge MAF signals) and current frequency of rotation of the engine (on gauge CKP signals). Adjustment parametres are considered. The compensatory variable urged to compensate time delays of operation of the injectors, the pressure of the storage battery connected with variations.

The organisation listed below functions allows to correct in due time base value of duration of opening of injectors for the purpose of maintenance of optimum structure of an air-fuel mix at any parametres of functioning of the engine.

  • Updating of structure of an air-fuel mix on signals докаталитического a ljambda-probe. On in appropriate way the equipped models given out докаталитическим a ljambda-probe the information on level of the maintenance of oxygen in the fulfilled gases allows ECM to correct in due time a dosage of giving of fuel for the purpose of prevention of appreciable deviations of structure of a gas mixture from стехиометрического values;
  • Starting updating of structure of a mix. During the moment проворачивания a cranked shaft at start of the engine duration of opening of injectors compulsorily increases for the purpose of maintenance of stability of turns;
  • Poststarting updating. The given updating allows to stabilise engine turns during the moment directly after realisation of its start (the information on temperature of the cooling liquid, delivered by gauge ECT is considered also);
  • Updating of structure of a mix during engine warming up. The given updating is made according to change of temperature of a cooling liquid (the more low the temperature, the duration of injection there is more) and carried out on the basis of the data which is given out by gauge ECT, and used ECM for stabilisation of turns of the engine during its warming up;
  • Updating of structure of a mix at full opening throttle заслонки. At full opening throttle заслонки duration of time of opening of injectors increases according to the information arriving from TPS;
  • Updating of structure of a mix during an acceleration. The given updating urged to compensate a time delay of definition of quantity of soaked up air for the purpose of increase of sensitivity of the engine to manipulations with a pedal of gas during acceleration.

The scheme of the organisation of monitoring of structure of an air-fuel mix on petrol models

1 — Forward каталитический the converter
2 — the Fulfilled gases
3 — the Dokatalitichesky ljambda-probe
4 — the Fuel injector
5 — the combustion Chamber
6 — ECM
And — the Signal of increase in duration of opening of an injector

In — the Signal of reduction of duration of opening of an injector
With — High level of the maintenance of oxygen in the fulfilled gases
D — Low level of the maintenance of oxygen in the fulfilled gases
Е — the Signal of the reimpoverished mix
F — the Signal of the reenriched mix

On considered models updating of structure of an air-fuel mix on signals докаталитического a ljambda-probe is organised intellectually. The essence of the told is concluded in the following: during management of mix structure, ECM on the basis of the analysis of the information arriving from the oxygen gauge calculates correcting variable which then is added to put in memory of the processor to base value of duration of time of opening of injectors (corresponding to current turns of the engine), thus sensitivity and reactance of system by that more low, than more considerably size of the demanded time additive. The intellectual organisation of process allows to bypass the given situation at the expense of continuous updating of base value by addition to it of last correcting additive and preservation of total value in operative memory of the processor, thus, the size of the next updating is essentially reduced, and efficiency of functioning of system increases.

Gas mixture ignition

ECM continuously traces a current working condition of the engine on the signals arriving from gauges of temperatures of the cooling liquid and soaked up air, position of a cranked shaft and so forth On the basis of the analysis of received information ECM selects optimum (from put in memory of the processor) the ignition moment in which gives out on the corresponding bobbin module a signal of interruption of a primary contour.

At management of ignition intellectual function (function of fast recognition) in which the data written down in memory ECM is compared to the information arriving from information gauges/gauges-switches also is used. So, at a choice of the moment of ignition for any operating conditions of the engine, ECM processes the information on target capacity of the power unit, the fuel expense, structure of the fulfilled gases and so forth During engine start fluctuations of its turns in view of what the management module is not capable to supervise adequately a corner of an advancing of ignition always take place, therefore for the given period the corner compulsorily is exposed on some base value on a special signal of gauge CKP.

After realisation of start of engine ECM on signals of same gauge CKP traces current turns of the engine and on the basis of the analysis of the received information exposes a corner of an advancing and porosity of an impulse of ignition corresponding to current requirements of the engine.

Management of idling turns

ECM provides stability of turns of idling of the engine by activation of the lamellar electromagnetic valve IAC operating перепусканием of additional air bypassing the case of a throttle. As initial information ECM uses the data delivered by gauges of position of a cranked shaft (CKP), temperatures of a cooling liquid (ECT), a flowmeter (gauge MAF), and also the gauge-switch of activation of the conditioner of air that allows to carry out a complete control behind engine turns at any current loading.

As an operating element of valve IAC the electromagnet reacting to level of porosity of the operating periodic signal is used. The above the factor of filling of the signal which is given out by the module of management on an electromagnet, the the big degree of opening rotary заслонки provides last. The expense of additional air is directly proportional to opening degree заслонки and direct impact on frequency of rotation of the engine makes.

The primary goals of the device is indemnification of increase of loading on the engine at activation К/В, the steering pump and other power-intensive consumers of the electric power, and also increase of turns of idling of the engine in an initial stage of its warming up, maintenance of buffer effect at fast closing throttle заслонки, plus the control of stability of turns of the engine idling.

Management of functioning of the fuel pump

Leaning against the information delivered by the gauge of position of a camshaft (CMP), ECM provides management of functioning of the fuel pump by activation/deactivation of its relay. For the purpose of increase of level of safety the fuel pump is automatically blocked at spontaneous остановах the engine at the included ignition. The principle of the organisation of management is formulated in the table

Principle of the organisation of management of gasoline pump functioning

Ignition is included

The relay of the fuel pump

The fuel pump

The certain period of time it is direct after ignition inclusion Вкл Functions
At проворачивании the engine a starter Вкл Functions
At engine work Вкл Functions
At останове the engine Выкл Does not function

Control system of ignition

The design and principle of functioning of system of ignition of the petrol engine are in detail described in the Head of System of an electric equipment of the engine.

Ventilation system картера (PCV)

Concentration of hydrocarbons (NANOSECOND) in картере the engine can exceed many times over the size registered at the analysis of structure of fulfilled gases.

The system of operated ventilation картера (PCV) provides issue decrease in atmosphere of hydrocarbonic connections at the expense of a conclusion картерных gases from the block of cylinders and their burning in the course of normal functioning of the engine.

Principle of functioning of system of ventilation картера (PCV) the petrol engine

Valve PCV, tightly closed cover of a jellied mouth of impellent oil, inlet air path and the complete set of connecting vacuum hoses concern number of the basic components of system.

At incomplete opening throttle заслонки, containing in the engine картерные gases, on a special hose through valve PCV are taken away in the inlet pipeline at the expense of relevancy of depth of depression created in it. Simultaneously in картер the engine on connected to a cover of a head of cylinders to a hose fresh air is started.

At completely opened заслонке when depth in the inlet pipeline is not so great, the part картерных gases on a separate hose is forwarded to an inlet air path and further - in the throttle case.

In due course walls of the case of a throttle start to become covered by tarry adjournment, in particular around an arrangement заслонок. In view of told, it is necessary to make throttle cleaning from time to time.

Three-functional каталитический the converter (TWC)

Depending on a complete set the structure of system of release of the fulfilled gases can include one (the European models), or two (the American models) three-functional каталитического the converter.

The Katalitichesky converter () is a component of system of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases, is included in structure of system of release and serves for issue decrease in atmosphere of toxic components. There are two types каталитических converters. The usual oxidising converter allows to lower the maintenance in the fulfilled gases of hydrocarbons (NANOSECOND) and монооксида carbon (WITH). Three-functional каталитический the converter (TWC) in addition allows to reduce issue of oxides of nitrogen (NОх). On petrol models considered in the present Management are used three-functional каталитические converters.

Base components of any TWC are platinum (Pt), rhodium (Rh) and палладиум (Pd) which mix is put by a thin layer on having form of an oval a cellular design, or a porous ceramic basis.

In order to avoid an irreversible exit of the catalyst out of operation for refuelling by appropriate amount of the equipped cars it is necessary to use exclusively неэтилированное fuel!

Peak efficiency of functioning каталитического the converter is reached at certain concentration in the fulfilled gases of toxic components. The demanded balance is reached at the expense of the control of structure of an air-fuel mix which the control system tries to support constantly near to the value equal стехиометрическому to number.

Control system of structure of an air-fuel mix

ECM, on the basis of the signals continuously arriving докаталитического of a ljambda-probe (ов), makes corresponding updatings of base value of duration of opening of injectors for the purpose of maintenance of structure of an air-fuel mix close стехиометрического values (14.7 parts of air on 1 part of fuel), providing optimum conditions for functioning three-functional каталитического the converter (TWC).

Various base values of time of opening of injectors are provided for various turns of the engine, current loadings and quantity of soaked up air.

In system the intellectual updating of current base values allowing appreciably to raise reactance of responses to occurring changes also is provided.

System of catching of fuel evaporations (EVAP)

The general information

System EVAP accumulates accumulating in a fuel path during parking of the car of evaporation in special, with the filled activated coal an adsorber and provides their conclusion in an inlet path for burning in the course of normal functioning of the engine, preventing thereby atmosphere pollution by petrol steams. System improvement is made continuously in process of toughening of requirements shown to environment protection.

The scheme of functioning of system of catching of fuel evaporations (EVAP) the petrol engine

1 — the throttle Case
2 — Э/м the valve of a purge of an adsorber
3 — the Coal adsorber
4 — the Fuel injector
5 — Valve PCV

6 — Gauge CMP
7 — Gauge ECT
8 — the Fuel pump
9 — the Control valve
10 — the Separator of fuel evaporations

The system structure includes a separator of fuel evaporations, the double-thread control valve, a coal adsorber, the electromagnetic valve of management of an adsorber purge, connecting lines and ECM.

Management of functioning of the valve of a purge of an adsorber carries out ECM, choosing the moment optimal for a purge, proceeding from working parametres of the engine, and also the information delivered by gauges of temperature and the expense of fuel.

The electromagnetic valve of management is included by pressure in испарительную a line of a fuel tank and serves for the pressure/depression control in a tank on the basis of the signals which are given out on ECM established in tank by the gauge of pressure.

Cover of a jellied mouth of a fuel tank

In normal conditions the cover closes a mouth absolutely tightly at the expense of the rubber consolidation pressed on all perimetre of a mouth, and also thanks to that the valve () remains densely pressed by a spring to the saddle.

1 — the Sealant
2 — the Spring
3 — the Valve

The jellied mouths built in a cover the safety valve serves for formation prevention in a tank of excessively deep depression owing to passableness infringement испарительных lines.

At increase of depth of depression in a tank atmospheric pressure wrings out a spring downwards that leads to valve opening. As a result pressure is levelled because in a tank external air gets.

Coal adsorber

The coal adsorber is filled by the activated coal, serves for time accumulation of fuel evaporations and is blown on signal ECM at opening of the special electromagnetic valve. From an adsorber fuel evaporations arrive in the inlet pipeline then are burnt in the course of normal functioning of the engine.

The electromagnetic valve of management of a purge of a coal adsorber

The valve is included in испарительную a line connecting an adsorber with the inlet pipeline and located from the bottom party of the pipeline. Management of a purge carries out ECM, leaning against the data about current operational parametres (temperature of a cooling liquid, engine turns, speed of movement, etc.). The purge is made at the started engine, except for certain conditions, such, for example, as work on single turns.

The double-thread valve

The double-thread valve is included in испарительную a line connecting a coal adsorber with a fuel tank. When pressure in a tank exceeds some established value developed клапанной by a spring effort the valve is overcome also opens, thus being in a tank under the pressure of evaporation are taken away in an adsorber where accumulate in a time наполнителя.

At pressure decrease the valve is closed, however air getting into system through entrance port of an adsorber, continues to get into a tank through a small aperture in a valve end face, preventing creation of excessive depression.

Vacuum path

The scheme of a lining of vacuum lines is resulted in the right section of information label VECI.

Diesel models

The general data

The scheme of the organisation of the power supply system of the diesel engine with electronic control by injection

1 — the Storage battery
2 — the Gauge of turns ТНВД (Np)
3 — the Compensatory resistor
4 — ECM
5 — the Gauge of position of a pedal of gas
6 — the Gauge of pressure of pressurisation
7 — the Gauge of temperature of air of pressurisation (TA)
8 — Turbokompressor
9 — the Regulator of the moments of injection
10 — the Valve of management of distribution of the moments of injection (TCV)

11 — the Gauge of position of the distributive piston
12 — Zapornyj the valve (FCV)
13 — the Gauge of position distributive муфты ТНВД (CSP)
14 — Intercooler
15 — the Gauge of temperature of air of pressurisation (TA)
16 — Electromagnetic valve EGR
17 — Gauge EGR
18 — Operating valve EGR
19 — the Vacuum pump

The scheme of placing of components of systems of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases of the diesel engine in an impellent compartment

1 — Э/м valve EGR
2 — Operating valve EGR
3 — Gauge EGR
4 — Sapun PCV
5 — the Assembly block of safety locks

6 — the Gauge of position of a pedal of gas
7 — the Gauge of temperature of soaked up air
8 — the Gauge of pressure of air of pressurisation
9 — ECM

Engine management, also as well as on petrol models carries out the electronic module (ECM), the carrying out control of a dosage and ignition submitted to chambers of combustion of a gas mixture on the basis of the signals arriving from various information gauges/gauges-switches (ВМТ, ECT, pressure of pressurisation, turns ТНВД [Np], PNP [models with АТ], activation К/В, position of a pedal of gas and so forth). Installation of phases timing is carried out by the management module through electronic ТНВД distributive type.

In case of revealing of refusals of any components of system ECM fixes in memory of the processor corresponding digital codes (DTC) which reading can be made by means of the special scanner connected to located in left back corner of an impellent compartment to a diagnostic socket (DLC).

The description of principles of formation of an air-fuel mix is resulted in Section the Power supply system of diesel engines.

The system of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases consists of two subsystems: ventilation картера (PCV), подмешивания the fulfilled gases (EGR), plus to that in release system is included oxidising каталитический the converter, called to reduce emission issue in atmosphere of oxides of nitrogen (NОх), монооксида carbon (WITH) and hydrocarbons (NANOSECOND).

The power supply system

Fuel dispensing

The basic requirements

For achievement of optimum structure of a working mix the fuel pump of a high pressure (ТНВД) should provide fuel giving in the engine under the pressure of 350 ÷ 2000 атм, - according to features of process of combustion дизтоплива - with the maximum accuracy of dispensing of cycles of injection.

The injection beginning should be precisely established on time in limits ± 1 ° turn of a cranked shaft for the purpose of maintenance of an optimum parity between such operational parametres of the engine, as the fuel expense, level of a noise background and emission of toxic components.

Regulation of the moment of the beginning of injection is carried out that it was possible to operate the beginning of process of combustion and to compensate duration of distribution of waves of compression in топливопроводах.

Systems of electronic control by functioning of diesel engines possess integrated functions of regulation of injection, providing change of giving of fuel by the pump depending on frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft, loading and working temperature of the engine.

For management of loading and frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft change of cyclic giving of fuel is used only; quantity of air on an admission not дросселируется. As the diesel engine on small loadings at increase in cyclic giving of fuel is capable to increase frequency of rotation to the values considerably exceeding admissible sizes, it is important to have the device limiting this increase. Besides, there should be also a regulator of turns in an idling mode.

Injection process

By consideration of process of injection in diesel engines it is impossible to consider fuel incompressible, - all accompanying processes should be considered as dynamic, acoustic principles reflecting mainly.

Camshaft ТНВД resulted from a cranked shaft of the engine moves плунжеры pump assemblage, providing giving of fuel with high pressure creation in топливопроводах.

When at pressure increase the delivery valve opens, the consolidation wave extends in a direction of a corresponding atomizer with speed of a sound (an order of 1400 km/s). On reaching demanded pressure запорная the needle of a working nozzle of an atomizer overcomes effort of a spring, opening section through passage, and fuel moves through распылительные apertures in the chamber of combustion of the engine. Injection process comes to an end with opening of a drain aperture in a sleeve плунжера. Pressure in надплунжерной cavities decreases that leads to closing of the delivery valve and, as consequence, pressure decrease in топливопроводе before the repartitions chosen from following conditions:

  • The zapornaja needle of an atomizer should be closed instantly, excepting fuel leak;
  • The oscillatory phenomena in топливопроводах should not cause repeated opening of an atomizer and become the reason кавитационных destructions.

System of injection of fuel

The injection system is intended for exact dispensing of fuel in any modes of functioning of the engine.

Principle of management of quantity of injection of fuel (Q)

The step of low pressure includes a fuel tank, the fuel filter, the pumping pump, перепускной the valve and топливопроводы.

A high pressure step concerns ТНВД with the delivery valve creating pressure necessary for injection), топливопроводы a high pressure and an atomizer. The system of electronic control of the engine also contains the control valve (more often electromagnetic, in the long term – piezoelectric).

In considered models it is used ТНВД distributive type (VE) with the electronic control, providing fuel distribution under a high pressure to atomizers of cylinders of the engine in defined ECM time moments.

Management of quantity of injected fuel at start and an input of warming up of the engine

During engine ECM start provides management of quantity of combustion of fuel injected into chambers, being guided by indications of the gauge of temperature of a cooling liquid (ECT).

The control of a maximum quantity of injected fuel

The maximum quantity of fuel injected into the engine is defined by the module of management on the basis of the analysis of the information arriving from gauges CKP (turns of a cranked shaft) and pressure of pressurisation (quantity of submitted air).

Management of quantity of injected fuel during movement

The management module defines the given parametre being based on the data arriving from gauges CKP and position of a pedal of gas.

The control of turns of idling

ECM aspires to support stability of turns of idling by the control of vibrating loadings (the detonation gauge), turns of the engine (gauge CKP) and current loading (the gauge of position of a pedal of gas).

Updating of quantity of injection depending on fuel temperature

Being based on indications of the gauge of temperature of fuel, ECM carries out updating of quantity of its injection.

Automatic suppression of deviations (ADC) turns

The management module traces frequency of injection of fuel in each of combustion chambers, suppressing the vibrations connected with infringement of stability of turns of the engine, defined by deviation of the given parametre.

Демпфирование sharp throws of quantity of the injection, the turns of the engine connected with change

The given function allows to lower mechanical vibrations and to minimise emission of a black smoke from release system at fast changes of turns of the engine.

Indemnification of change of height of position above sea level

ECM provides management of quantity and the moment of injection depending on changes of atmospheric pressure.

Management of quantity of injection depending on temperature of soaked up air

Being based on the analysis of the information on temperature of air soaked up in the engine, ECM carries out updating of quantity and the moment of combustion of fuel injected into chambers.

Management of the injection moments

ECM provides management of the moments of injection of fuel in chambers of combustion both during engine start, and during movement), proceeding from the data from temperature of a cooling liquid (gauge ECT), frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft (gauge CKP) and current loading (the gauge of position of a pedal of gas). The Feedback is carried out through the gauge of position of distributive piston TNVD (TPS).

Principle of the organisation of automatic suppression of deviations (ADC)

Principle of management of the injection moments ()

System of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases

The system of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases of the diesel engine consists of three subsystems: system of operated ventilation картера (PCV), system подмешивания the fulfilled gases (EGR) and oxidising каталитического the converter.

Ventilation system картера (PCV)

The scheme of the organisation of operated ventilation картера (PCV) the diesel engine

System рециркуляции the fulfilled gases

On considered models the scheme external рециркуляции when some controllable quantity of the fulfilled gases is taken away from system of release is organised and mixed with chambers of combustion of the engine.

The scheme of the organisation of system рециркуляции the fulfilled gases (EGR) the diesel engine

As a result of such подмешивания the fulfilled gases in a working mix the temperature of combustion of last decreases a little that leads to concentration reduction in an exhaust of oxides of nitrogen (NОх).

Management рециркуляцией carries out ECM by means of two valves (operating electromagnetic and executive) and one information gauge.

Oxidising каталитический the converter

In system of release of the fulfilled gases of diesel models joins каталитический the converter of the oxidising type providing decrease of concentration of emission in atmosphere of toxic products of combustion of fuel at the expense of their reburning (oxidation) at contact to the metallized covering of the developed surface of a working element.

1 — the Case
2 — the Stream of the fulfilled gases from the engine
3 — the Inlet branch pipe
4 — To the muffler
5 — the Working element with cellular structure