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The general information
System of cooling of the engine
All models of cars considered in the present Management are equipped by system of cooling of the engine working at superfluous pressure with thermostatic management of circulation of a working liquid. The water pump is fixed on the block of the engine and provides prorolling of a cooling liquid through охладительный a path of the last.
The scheme of an arrangement of the basic components of system of cooling (on an example of diesel models)
The liquid stream washes areas of an arrangement of each of cylinders in the block then goes to a back part of the engine; laid in moulding of the block and a head of cylinders охладительные channels provide intensive heat removal from inlet and final ports, areas of installation of candles of ignition/nakalivanija and directing plugs of final valves; on diesel models the cooling liquid is used also for tap of superfluous heat from турбокомпрессора.
The scheme of the big contour of circulation of a cooling liquid (on an example of diesel models)
From the moment of start of the engine the cooling system passes through three modes of functioning: on первомэтапе while the temperature of a cooling liquid has not risen above certain value, it circulates on a small circle from which working contour the radiator is excluded. In process of the further warming up of the engine opens тарельчатый the valve included in a system path воскозаполненного the thermostat and the radiator is connected to a circulation contour. Further, on reaching temperature of a cooling liquid of the next control value, works вязкостная муфта a drive of the fan of system of the cooling, forced which additional air stream appreciably raises efficiency of functioning of the heat exchanger of a radiator.
In addition the design вязкостной муфты provides fan switching-off at excess by turns of the engine of some certain value when the adequate heat-conducting path is reached at the expense of increase of intensity of a running stream of air.
The cooling system has a tight design and is densely closed by a cover of the radiator, capable to maintain certain superfluous pressure that provides increase of a boiling point of a cooling liquid and, - accordingly, - efficiency of a heat-conducting path through a radiator. At excess by internal pressure in system of some certain value (Specifications of the Head of System of cooling, heating, ventilation and an air conditioning see), the double-thread naporno-vacuum valve built in in a cover that leads to an overflowing of surplus of a cooling liquid on connecting (переливной) to a tube in a broad tank opens, - leaving together with a liquid air and steams of the heat-carrier then are deduced from a tank at the expense of the organisation of ventilation of the last. In process of cooling of system and pressure lowering in it below atmospheric the superseded surplus of a liquid automatically comes back from a tank in a radiator.
On models with automatic transmission the radiator is equipped by the additional tank providing cooling ATF.
Refuelling of a cooling liquid in system is made through a radiator mouth (Current leaving and service see the Head). Updating of level of a liquid can be made through a mouth of a broad tank which simultaneously acts also in a role of the receiver accumulating in superseded from radiator surplus of a liquid.
In view of the listed features of a design, such system of cooling has received the name closed as in it any functional losses of the heat-carrier are excluded.
Systems of heating and salon ventilation
The heating system consists from located in a forward part of salon of the fan, the heat exchanger, and also equipped with days off дефлекторами sleeves of distribution of an air stream. The hot cooling liquid passes through the heat exchanger. Principles of management (and air-conditionings) are in detail stated by functioning of systems of heating/ventilation regarding the Device of maintenance of comfort of the Head Controls and operation receptions.
Air central air
The Section of System of ventilation, heating and air conditioning see.